首页Home | 收藏本站 | 订阅 | 登录 | 注册 | 手机网 | 微博 | 微信 | 下载中心Download 2015/03/11 10:52:45


美国的“中船集团”船厂讲述今后如何生存发展
近日美国福布斯报道报道了美国类似中国“中船集团”的一个船厂,同是造船厂却命运不同,讲述今后如何生存发展的案例。

正筹备“第三届2019国际船用洗涤塔和压载水系统产业上海峰会 、“第六届2019年船舶新技术与投资上海国际峰会”将于2019年11月30日-12月1日将在上海市华美达大酒店举办、同时将在上海国际海事展期间发布3版不同2020中国造船地图的国际船舶海工网了解到。


外媒报道如下:有传言说太平洋世纪即将来临,您看看美国西海岸的造船业就会自己的结论。

尽管亚洲和美洲之间的贸易量巨大,美国海军在太平洋地区的军事活动不断增加,但沿海造船业已逐渐减少到只有一个提供全面服务的造船厂在密西西比州以西生存的程度。这个造船厂就是位于圣地亚哥的美国国家钢铁造船公司(National Steel and Shipbuilding Company,俗称NASSCO),是美国最大的国防承包商-通用动力公司(General Dynamics)的一个部门。

NASSCO目前正在蓬勃发展-它是有史以来最大的手持订单-但与通用动力公司拥有的另外两个船厂不同,它不仅依靠政府来获得收入。相反,它会抓住每一个机会,使管理人员认为他们可以从造船技术中获利,包括商船建造和维修。

NASSCO的国家订单和商船建造,新造和修理的混合,可能解释了为什么它在西海岸的其他竞争对手逐一消失的情况下表现良好。维持多样化的收入基础,使造船厂能够应对海军和商船需求的兴衰周期。

但是即使在最好的情况下,NASSCO的经理也知道他们必须保持尽可能快的运行速度,才能保持原状。华盛顿的一项立法行为或行政工作可能会危及数十年的努力。

那就是1980年代NASSCO的几个竞争对手所经历的。里根政府决定取消对美国商用远洋船的建造补贴,而不寻求其他造船国家的对等措施。

十年之内,曾是世界上最大的造船产业的美国商业造船业崩溃了。在该国家的2百年纪念年时,有70艘远洋船在建造中,如今逐渐消失。现在韩国以100:1的比例超过美国的商船建造吨位。

冷战结束后,海军合并了其船舶维护和修理设施,加剧了美国造船业的衰落。能够组装或改装大型船只的熟练工人队伍逐渐收缩,因此,如今,生存船坞所面临的最大挑战之一是寻找合格的工人来制造零件和组装船只。

新技术有帮助-例如数控加工中心和激光切割系统-但是造船仍然是一项劳动密集型活动,并且劳动者需要知道它在做什么。像位于海军最大的西海岸基地附近的圣地亚哥河畔的小型造船厂一样,NASSCO也在不断寻找人才和业务。尽管如今的造船厂正在使用其80英亩的每平方英尺来建造或维修船舶,但管理人员知道生产运行受到限制,并且在工人开始弯曲金属之前就需要确保新的计划。另一家造船公司的一位高管告诉我,他的船厂状况反映了国会七年前做出的决定。

如此绘制出需求周期后,运行NASSCO的人员始终会想到接下来会发生什么问题。例如,该船厂目前正在为保护国内运输路线的两艘商业船工作,但是商业需求的未来充其量是不确定的。舰队补给加油机以取代海军老化的舰队是一个重大机遇,但国防预算持平或下降可能会加大这一努力。

然后是远征海底基地,供水手,海军陆战队和特种操作人员使用,这是一艘巨大的军舰,根据NASSCO建造的用于将原油从阿拉斯加运往美国48个州的油轮设计,排水量达80,000吨。预计该院将建造至少七个这样的浮动基地,也许更多,但是海军陆战队的远征作战计划正在不断变化。

因此,即使有强劲的新造船订单簿,NASSCO也绝不会减慢其寻找未来机会的机会。进行海军舰船的维护和修理为NASSCO的业务基础提供了至关重要的基础。但是,许多工作必须在圣地亚哥以外的地方进行,因此它只会为保留适用于新建筑的技能做出增量贡献。

即将到来的最大机会是一项海军计划,该计划将在首字母缩写CHAMP(“common hull auxiliary multi-mission platform”“通用船体辅助多任务平台”)的倡议下对海上运输和其他几类支持船进行注资。由于支持军事战役的海上运输舰队日益减少,CHAMP在国会得到了大力支持,而NASSCO是开发设计的四码堆之一。但是海军的造船预算被超额认购,因此尚不清楚何时开始建造。

我上个月参观了圣地亚哥的院子,对活动的强度印象深刻。如果说重工业在美国是垂死的行业,那在NASSCO尚无定论。但是,您必须想知道美国如何从成为地球上最大的商业造船厂之一,转变为事后才想到华盛顿的人很少。即使容易找到相反的迹象,美国的政治文化似乎也假设美国工业将蓬勃发展。

白宫成立的一个机构间工作队去年发现,造船业还面临着许多挑战,包括繁荣与萧条的需求周期,技能短缺和脆弱的供应链。例如,只有一个国内锻造残骸,可以为远洋船只制造大型螺旋桨轴。

NASSCO提供了一个案例研究,说明一个相对较小的造船厂如何应对这些趋势以及其他一些竞争对手注定无法摆脱的趋势。但是,即使是今天做的很好,这是一个悬而未决的问题,以什么命运等待着我们造船的队伍日益减少,如果华盛顿不密切注意,曾经打造美国体制的工业强筋(造船工业)将会是怎么样?


随着全球产业新技术和国际经济贸易新发展,新的业态、新的思维、新的应用正对航运、造船、海事、配套和服务等领域发起新的冲击、机会和挑战。为响应国内外众多船东、船管、船厂、供应商、投资机构、制造厂、配套厂、设计公司、服务公司等单位的交流、探讨和分享要求,更大规模、更高规格的“第六届2019船舶新技术与投资上海国际峰会”暨“第三届2019国际船用洗涤塔和压载水系统产业上海峰会” 定于2019年11月30日-12月1日将在上海市华美达大酒店举办 。届时将有超过300多位来自中国、英国、美国、加拿大、德国、丹麦、挪威、瑞典、日本、法国、荷兰、比利时、芬兰、新加坡、马来西亚、韩国等国的船东、船厂、洗涤塔厂商、压载水厂商、配套厂家、设计和投资单位等参加,汇聚上海,在12月3-6日的上海国际海事展前3天,交流、探讨和分享低硫油供应切换、压载水处理系统、船舶洗涤塔、LNG装备、智能装备和其他新技术产品应用的市场机会现状和趋势等咨询邮件:chinabobli@126.com 或china@ishipoffshore.com


同时,为迎接2019年度全球最具影响力和规模最大的海事专业会展——2019年中国国际海事技术学术会议及展览会在上海于2019年12月3日-6日盛大举办,国际船舶海工网将在展会期间继续发布新版中外上瘾的中国造船地图3个不同版本的“中国造船活跃企业分布图”(简称造船地图),该图将基于国际船舶海工网多年来在海内外成功发布的各类版本的专版的中英文中国造船地图,900元起就可刊登,将重点突出中国最新活跃船厂和配套服务厂商,可以满足国内外了解和掌握中国造船工业的最新动态。

广告投入商,将可以免费得到2020年3月新加坡APM海事展和全球最大海事展2020年9月德国汉堡SMM上国际船舶海工网继续发布的全英文版造船地图上上单位LOGO,或者任何项目的8折优惠广告投放。

咨询邮件:chinabobli@126.com 或china@ishipoffshore.com

2019年12月3日-6日3上海国际海事展会期间将继续发布新版的中外上瘾的中国造船地图3个不同版本的地图其中超大珍藏版中英文中国造船大地图。尺寸为1140x840 mm,将只赠送给部分特定单位,其他单位和个人需要付费购买。每2张大图购买工本价为380元人民币(包邮,有增值税发票)。一面为中文版,另外一面为英文版。超大珍藏版格式如下:

2020版中国造船中英文版格式分别如下。


2019英文造船地图格式如下:


NASSCO: The Last Major Shipyard On The U.S. West Coast Shows What It Takes To Survive

Rumor has it that the Pacific Century is upon us. You would never know that to look at the shipbuilding industry on the U.S. West Coast.

Despite the vast volume of trade between Asia and America, and the increasing U.S. naval presence in the Pacific, shipbuilding on the coast has gradually dwindled to a point where only one full-service shipyard survives west of the Mississippi.

That shipbuilder is the National Steel and Shipbuilding Company in San Diego—universally known as NASSCO—which is a unit of defense contractor General Dynamics (a contributor to my think tank).

NASSCO is thriving at the moment—it has one of the biggest backlogs in its history—but unlike the other two yards owned by General Dynamics, it doesn’t rely solely on the government for revenues. Instead, it chases every opportunity where managers think they can apply their shipbuilding skills profitably, including commercial ships and repair.

NASSCO’s mix of government and commercial shipbuilding, new construction and repair, probably explains why it is doing well at a time when, one by one, its other West Coast rivals have disappeared. Sustaining a diverse revenue base enables the yard to cope with boom-and-bust cycles in both naval and commercial demand.

But even in the best of times, NASSCO’s managers know they have to keep running as fast as they can just to stay where they are. A single legislative act or executive exertion in Washington could put decades of effort in jeopardy.

That’s what happened to several of NASSCO’s competitors in the 1980s. The Reagan Administration decided to eliminate construction subsidies for commercial oceangoing vessels in the U.S. without seeking reciprocal action from other shipbuilding nations.

Within a decade, commercial shipbuilding in the U.S. had collapsed. What had been the biggest such industry in the world, with 70 oceangoing vessels under construction in the nation’s bicentennial year, ebbed away to nothing. Today, South Korea out-produces the U.S. in commercial tonnage by a ratio of 100-to-1.

The decline of U.S. shipbuilding was exacerbated by the Navy’s consolidation of its ship maintenance and repair facilities after the Cold War ended. The pool of skilled workers capable of assembling or modifying large vessels gradually contracted so that today, one of the biggest challenges faced by surviving yards is finding competent workers to fabricate parts and assemble vessels.

New technology helps—such as numerically controlled machining centers and laser cutting systems—but shipbuilding remains a labor-intensive activity, and the labor needs to know what it is doing. NASSCO, like the lesser shipyards clustered along San Diego’s waterfront near the Navy’s biggest West Coast base, is constantly searching for talent.

And for business. Although the shipyard today is using every square foot of its 80 acres to build or repair ships, managers know that production runs are limited and new programs need to be secured well in advance of when workers start bending metal. A senior executive at another shipbuilding company told me that the state of his yards today reflects decisions Congress made seven years ago.

With demand cycles so drawn out, the people who run NASSCO always have on their minds the question of what comes next. For instance, the yard is currently working on two commercial vessels for protected domestic shipping routes, but the future of commercial demand is uncertain at best. Fleet replenishment oilers to replace the Navy’s aging fleet are a major opportunity, but a flat or declining defense budget picture might stretch that effort out.

And then there is the Expeditionary Sea Base being built for use by sailors, marines and special operators—a huge warship displacing 80,000 tons based on an oil tanker design that NASSCO built for carrying crude from Alaska to the lower 48 states. The yard is expected to build at least seven of these floating bases, probably more, but the expeditionary warfare plans of the Marine Corps are in flux.

So even with a robust order book for new construction vessels, NASSCO never slows its search for future opportunities. Performing maintenance and repair of Navy vessels provides a vital underpinning for NASSCO’s business base. However, much of that work must be done away from San Diego, so it only makes an incremental contribution to the preservation of skills applicable to new construction.

The biggest opportunity on the horizon is a Navy program to recapitalize sealift and several other categories of support vessels under an initiative with the acronym CHAMP (“common hull auxiliary multi-mission platform”). CHAMP has major support in Congress due to the growing decrepitude of a sealift fleet essential to supporting military campaigns, and NASSCO is one of four yards developing designs. But the Navy’s shipbuilding budget is oversubscribed, so it isn’t clear when construction will start.

I toured the San Diego yard last month and was impressed with the intensity of activity. If heavy industry is a dying sector in America, that sure isn’t apparent at NASSCO. But you have to wonder how America has gone from being one of the biggest commercial shipbuilders on the planet to an afterthought with few people in Washington even noticing. The U.S. political culture seems to assume American industry will thrive even when indications to the contrary are easy to find.

An interagency task force formed by the White House found last year that there are numerous challenges to what’s left of the shipbuilding sector, including boom-and-bust demand cycles, skill shortages and a fragile supply chain. For instance, only one domestic forge remains that can make large propeller shafts for oceangoing vessels.

NASSCO provides a case study of how a relatively small shipyard has managed to survive these and other trends that doomed some of its rivals. But even though it is doing well today, it is an open question as to what fate awaits the dwindling ranks of U.S. shipbuilders if Washington doesn’t pay closer attention to the industrial sinews that once made America the “arsenal of democracy.”

Source: Forbes via hellenicshippingnews
延伸阅读

Email: chinabobli@126.com or china@ishipoffshore.com Tel电话: +86-21-54362186/ Fax传真:+86-21-64041979

Powered by International Ship & Offshore Magazine and Supported by Seahow Consulting。

沪ICP备15015253号 www.beian.miit.gov.cn 国际船舶海工网 版权所有 Copyright © 2008-2015 www.ishipoffshore.com All Rights Reserved.


Powered by DIY-Page 8.3